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Indian Art And Architecture Pdf 18 Extra Quality

In the New England States first Dutch, then English Protestant zealots attempted to set up a community under religious laws and the government of Puritan pastors, a theocracy. Further south, in Virginia and Carolina the opposite happened. Here it was Cavalier and Royalist refugees who tried to rebuild an aristocratic way of life on estates and plantations, where they imitated the life-style of English country gentlemen. Both Puritans and Cavaliers were to see their ideals founder under the impact of reality, but each form of idealism produced its own types of art, architecture, music and literature. Conflicting idealism also inspired and divided the politics of the new Republic, eventually leading to the War between the States (1861-5) and a subsequent new westward migration. As long as North American culture was centred on the Eastern States, its practitioners would look back to Europe. It was the American West, and contact with both Nature and the inhabitants there, particularly the old Spanish colonists, that finally liberated American art from provinciality. It was as if a wave of energy reached the West Coast, then broke and rolled back to rejuvenate the East.

Indian Art And Architecture Pdf 18

Colonial versus Native Art In general, the term "American Colonial art" describes the art and architecture of 17th and 18th century settlers who arrived in America from Europe. It was so Eurocentric that it had no contact with the tribal art traditions of American Indian art, either on the eastern seaboard, the plains or the west coast. For more about art from other British colonies, see: Australian Colonial Painting (1780-1880).

The latter were to be the strongest and most lasting influence. Two distinct streams of English settlers were seeking their own version of a 'Garden of Eden' in the New World. In New England, along the coast and up the Hudson River Valley the Puritans hoped to build a pious theocratic state free from persecution and based on their own fundamental religious principles. Further south, in Virginia, were settlers expecting to lead the life of rich English gentlemen on plantations and estates, in almost complete opposition to the ideals of their Puritan neighbours. All looked back to the Old World for their architecture and culture. The Puritans built sober Anglo-Dutch houses and churches in neat little towns. The Virginians looked to the court of Charles II and built in the manner of Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723).

Many of these types of colonial architecture would be revived by designers during the 19th century and the early 20th century. Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959), for instance, designed Bagley House (1894) in a Dutch Colonial Revival style; Moore House I (1895), in a Tudor Revival style; and Charles Roberts House (1896), in a Queen Anne style.

Republicans in Europe looked back nostalgically to the Roman Republic as an egalitarian ideal; a myth largely of their own making. Neoclassical Architecture was the recognisable symbol of the Republican spirit, not the theatrically gilt and mirrored Baroque architecture that Renaissance Classical had become, but a chaste, pure and clearly defined Classical style, as idealistic and bearing as little relation to its origins as the politics it symbolised. The white or cream painted neo-Palladian house was the American ideal. The defeat of the British was also a defeat for the old Puritan ascendancy, although not seen as such at the time, and the early days of the Republic saw its political domination by Southern landowners rather than Northern merchants. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), legislator, economist, educationalist and Third President of the United States, was a professional and influential architect. The son of a surveyor, he built his mansion home, Monticello, in 1769 on his inherited estate. He also designed the Virginian State Capitol Building, the Washington Capitol, burnt in 1817, and the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, the prototypical American campus. Influenced by Andrea Palladio (1508-80), Jefferson found in Roman Classicism authority for social and architectural theories suitable for a new Republic. In addition to Jefferson, colonial American architects who used neoclassical designs included Federal Style designers William Thornton (1759-1828) and Charles Bulfinch (1763-1844), who designed most of the US Capitol Building (1792-1827), as well as the Greek Revival architect Benjamin Latrobe (1764-1820), who was also responsible for the Baltimore Basilica (1806–1821). For more details, see: American Architecture (1600-present).

• For a chronological guide to painting in colonial era America and elsewhere, see: History of Art Timeline. • For information about neoclassical colonial architecture in the United States, see: Homepage.

The biggest impact of the Industrial Revolution on 19th century architecture was the mass-production of iron and later steel in quantities where it became an economically plausible building material (as opposed a limited material for weapons and tools).

The application of iron, and particularly steel, to architecture greatly expanded the structural capabilities of existing materials, and created new ones. Steel has tremendous strength to weight and allowed engineers to design increasingly bigger, lighter, more open spaces even while architecturally the traditional style was informed by the limitations of brick and masonry, as found in curious case of the popular Gothic Revival, with its claustrophobic feel.

In France, the imperial cult of Napoleon steered architecture in a more Roman direction, as seen in the Church of the Madeleine (1807-1842), a huge Roman temple in Paris. French architectural thought had been jolted at the turn of the century by the highly imaginative published projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicholas Ledoux. These men were inspired by the massive aspects of Egyptian and Roman work, but their monumental (and often impractical) compositions were innovative, and they are admired today as visionary architects.

The Greek Revival dominated american architecture during the period 1818-1850. It was the first truly national style in the United States, found in all regions of the country. The popularity of the style was due to strong associations with classical tradition and democracy. The Greek Revival was very adaptable, and permeated all levels of building, from high to low.

In France, the imperial cult of Napoleon architecture in a more Roman direction, which was also witnessed in the Church of the Madeleine around 1807 to 1842 was a huge Roman temple in Paris. The French thoughts for architecture were a turning point of the era by the highly imaginative published projects of Etienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicholas Ledoux. These were the people who got inspired by the massive aspects of the Egyptian and roman work, and their work and monumental composition were very innovative. Even today they are admired as visionary architects.

This class will examine a variety of Native arts, architecture and other forms of expression that each explore the historical uses and the layering of Indigenous knowledges. The knowledges embodied in the various forms have implications for expressing cultural health, political views and the realities of Native communities. The role played by economics and the tendency of stereotypical perpetuation and privileging some forms of Native expression over others will also be a topic of exploration.

The Medieval Revivals style was inspired by architecture and decorative arts from 1000-1600. The interest in Norman, Gothic and Jacobean styles reflected a romantic nostalgia for Britain's past. By the 1790s it had become an important alternative to classical styles.

A defining characteristic of the Baroque style was the way in which the visual arts of painting, sculpture and architecture were brought together, into a complete whole, to convey a single message or meaning.

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